Introduction
 

Why did I write this? — Who is the target audience? — Disclaimer — Safety

Chapter 1
Matches and Lighters
1

Charcoal "lighter fluid" vs. Zippo "lighter fluid" — Zippo lighters vs. butane — Where does the idea come from that mineral spirits (charcoal lighter fluid) is explosive? — Substitutes for Zippo lighter fluid — IMCO lighters — Matches — Match chemistry — Strike anywhere matches — Waterproof matches

Chapter 2
Candles
11

Safety — The candle flashlight — Wax types — Burn times — UCO candle lanterns — Melting wax safely — Making hand-dipped candles — Homemade tea candles — Tabbed wicks — Homemade tubs — Homemade candle lanterns — Wick types — Mordants — Hurri-Candles — Safety

Chapter 3
Vegetable Oil Lamps
29

Cotton puff lamp — Toothpick lamp — Crude lantern — Beer bottle lamp — Corn oil — Floating-wick lamp — Japanese shokudai — String lamp — Vegetable oil in a regular kerosene lamp

Chapter 4
Fat Lamps
38

Tuna can fat lamp— Toothpick lamp — The I-Didn't-Know-That-Olive-Oil-Would-Burn fat lamp — Copper fat lamp — Fuels: safe and not-safe

Chapter 5
Petroleum – Part 1
45

Crude oil — Oil refining — Methane — Ethane — Propane — Butane — Gasoline — Octane — White gas — Amoco — Coleman fuel — Storage of Coleman fuel

Chapter 6
Petroleum – Part 2
52

Mineral spirits — Flammable vs. combustible — "Combustible" is the Spanish word for fuel — Kerosene (coal oil, jet fuel, military designations) — Diesel (fuel oil #2) — ppm (parts per million) sulfur — Mineral oil — Synthetic products (Ultra-Pure, Klean-Heat)

Chapter 7
Mineral Spirits
59

Is it safe to use mineral spirits in a kerosene lamp? — Mineral spirits is "combustible" — Paint thinner — Evaporation rates — Kerosene in rain gauges — MSDS sheets — TESTS: Kero vs. Mineral Spirits — Test #1 (fuel temperature & flame temperature) — Test #2 (fuel temperature) — Test #3 (viscosity/permeability) — Test #4 (flash point) — Quotes from yachters — Commercial conflicts of interest

Chapter 8
Kerosene Lamp Theory
68

Design criteria — Must use combustible fuel, not flammable — Must be no crack in the wick tube — Grooved joint; lap joint; butt joint — Whale oil lamp — Heat shield — Wick must fit snugly — Flame-to-fuel distance — Candlepower defined — Candlepower vs. wattage — My visual system of rating light output

Chapter 9
Kerosene Lamps Practice
76

Parts of a lamp — Wicks (cotton, fiberglass) — Font — Collar — Burner — Shroud — Chimney — The concept of "nominal" dimensions — Lines/lignes — Size chart — Fuel — Lamp Operation — Trimming the wick — Lamp & Lantern Styles — Miniature — Finger Lamp — "Ordinary" flat-wick lamp — Flat-wick lanterns — Hot Blast — Cold Blast — Dead Flame

Chapter 10
Duplex
83

History — Chimney — Wicks — Burning a wick — Feeder wicks — Snuffer — Hong Kong "Duplex" — Lamp & part availability — The good, the bad, and the ugly

Chapter 11
Rayo & Kosmos
89

History — Availability — The necessities — Optional parts — New-Old Stock (NOS) — Wicks — Changing the wick — Trimming the wick — Chime dents — Stress cracks — Gas tank coatings — Cracked galleries — Competitors of yesteryear (e.g. B&H) — Kosmos — Matador

Chapter 12
Mantles
98

History — Theory of operation — Thorium — Yttrium — Radioactivity — Styles (sock, preformed, double-tie) — Instaclip — Installing a tiestyle mantle — Sizes — What if too big? Too small? — Petromax mantles — Northstar mantles — Firing a new mantle — Old wives tales — Silk-Lite (No. 20, 21A, 999, 1111) — Goldtop — Peerless (Aladdin, Type 111, 24-A, 2C-HG) — Homemade

Chapter 13
Aladdin
111

Models & years sold — Model 23 — Lox-On — Paper shades — Altitude, tall chimneys — Spare parts discussion — Mantle availability (Chicago, English, Brazilian, Maltese, Filipino) — 2010 halt in production — Today's Philippine mantles — New mantles on old lamps and vice versa — Models 11, 12, 21: highly touted but for collectors — 'star' Model 23: garden variety for survivors

Chapter 14
Gas, Propane, Butane
121

Lamps that don't require pumping — Wall-mounted; natural gas & propane — Mr Heater installation — Fire insurance — Portable propane lamps — Portable butane lamps — Piezoelectric lighting

Chapter 15
Quick-Lite & Instant-Lite
130

Quick-Lite; how it works — Generator — Check Valve — Pumps — Evolution: Pyrex vs. mica; R55 vs. Q99 generators — Instant-Lite — Adjusting brightness — Safety — Using a lantern inside — Oxygen starvation — Carbon monoxide — Mantle damaged in use — Storage of white gas — Labeled Quick-Lite photo — Labeled Instant-Lite photo

Chapter 16
Adjustable-Brightness & Dual Fuel
146

Burning petrol — Caution re: leaded automobile gas — Model 275 was transitional — Schrader valve — Model 285 performance on petrol — Caution re: unleaded automobile gas — Adjustable brightness — Light output of adjustable-brightness lanterns — Light output is a function of fuel consumption — Labeled Dual-Fuel photos

Chapter 17
Coleman Kerosene Lanterns
156

Is kerosene the intended fuel in this lantern? — Safety — Coleman kerosene models that are safe when using gasoline — Kerosene pressure lamp desirability — Availability — As a multi-fuel lantern, 639-with-pricker is King of the Road — What are the options to get a kero pressure lantern? — Converting a gas lantern to kero — Tip sizes — What are filters made of? — Coleman warning — Kero conversions with a filter in the generator — 200A — 275 — 220 & 228 — Leacock Model 107 — 285 non-conversion — Salvaging a generator — Diesel fuel — Why the fixation with Coleman? — Labeled Coleman 237 photos

Chapter 18
Petromax
174

History — Trademark — Clone brand names — Diesel fuel in a Petromax — Part numbering — How the lantern works — Petromax mantles — Gasoline in a BriteLyt — German army-surplus Petromaxes — Labeled Petromax photos

Chapter 19
Alcohol as Lamp Fuel
187

Ethanol — Methanol — Denatured — Isopropyl — Is alcohol safe in a homemade YouTube-no-tube lamp? — Is alcohol safe in an Aladdin lamp? — Titus — Hugo Schneider (Pyro) — Kriegslichtbrenner — Is alcohol safe in a conventional kerosene lamp? — Is alcohol safe in a lab-type alcohol burner? — LEL (Lower Explosive Limit) — Auto Ignition Temperature — Flash Point — Latent Heat of Evaporation — Lamp design factors — Are there pressure lamps that can be converted to alcohol? — Petromax — Leacock Model 107 — Are there any pressure lamps designed exclusively for alcohol? — Primus — BriteLyt

Chapter 20
So Which One Is Best?
203

Just tell me what's good and readily available — Brightest — Cheapest — Lowest operating cost — Lowest Smell — Multi-fuel — Alcohol — Burning fluid — Calcium carbide — Multi-fuel Chart — Electronic ignition — No hiss — Off-grid in America — Off-grid in Darkest Africa — Off-grid, TEOTWAWKI — Closing thought

 
Glossary
214


 
Index
233